Gaius Julius Phadrus (1st Century). Thracian slave who translated Aesop’s fables into Latin.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca (ca 4 BC – 65 AD). He was born in Spain but educated in Rome. He tutored Nero as a boy and became his advisor when Nero became emperor. Unfortunately, Nero accused him of conspiracy and Seneca was forced to commit suicide. Seneca was a major playwright, an orator, and philosopher. He was a Stoic and influenced the medieval and renaissance ages. Dante placed him in the First Circle of Hell- a place for good men whose only fault were that they were not Christian.
Publilius Syrus (1st Century BC). A mime and writer of maxims from Syria. He was brought as a slave to Italy but was later freed. He collected a group of maxims under the title Sententiae.
Avianus (5th Century). Latin writer of fables.
Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius (5th Century). Roman grammarian and author. He wrote a commentary on Cicero’s the Dream of Scipio and also wrote Saturnalia. He was well versed in Greek as well as Latin.
Stephano Andraa Philippe (Etienne Andre Philippe de Pretot) (1708-1787). Royal censor, professor of history at the Royal Academy of Science in Paris, editor of classical works.
Lilio Gyraldi (Giglio Gregorio Giraldi) (1479-1552). Italian humanist from Ferrara. He worked for the papacy but after the sack of Rome in 1527, he lost his property and left the city. Among his many works, he wrote a work on mythology as well as essays on ancient Latin poets “Historiae Poetarum Graecorum ac Latinorum.”
Gerardus Joannes Vossius (1577-1649). Dutch classical scholar. His parents were Dutch Protestants who moved to Germany for religious freedom but they ended moving to Leiden to avoid religious persecution by German Lutherans. Vossius became Director of Theology at Leiden University. However, he had to resign after being accused of heresy but a few years later was able to return to the University. He wrote about historical theology. Vossius became Professor of History at Amsterdam. He also wrote about Greek and Latin writers and did a treatise on mythology entitled “De Theologia Gentili.”
Johannes Scheffer (1621-1679). German-born editor and translator. He moved to Sweden and became a professor of rhetoric and politics at Uppsala. Scheffer was an archaeologist, philogist, and translated a number of classical works.
Jan Gruter (1560-1627). Dutch scholar. His parents came to England to escape religious troubles. He studied at Cambridge and received a Master of Arts degree at Leiden. He became professor of history at the University of Wittenberg but lost his position when he refused to accept the Formula Concordiae (the Creed of the Protestant Church). He then held a position at the University of Rostock from 1589-1592, and then became the librarian at the University of Heidelberg in 1602. A major work of his was “Inscriptiones Antiquae Totius Orbis Romani”, a collection of Roman inscriptions.
Marquard Gude (1635-1689). German archaeologist and classical scholar. He made a collection of Greek and Latin inscriptions. He traveled with a wealthy Dutchman, Samuel Schars. When Schars died, Gude received a large share of his estate. Later in his life, Gude entered the service of Christian V of Denmark.
Fables of Phaedrus. This is composed of five books of fables written by Phaedrus. It also includes the life of Phaedrus by Johannes Schefferus, comments by Gerardus Vossius, the fables of Phaedrus, an appendix by Marquard Gude, the life of Avianus by Lilio Gyraldi, the fables of Avianus (with a preface addressed to Theodosius), the maxims of Publilius Syrus (which historically have improperly been associated with the writings of Lucius Annaeus Seneca), and notes by Jan Gruter. Also included is a short note on the prosody of trochee (a metrical foot composed of a stressed then unstressed syllable).
Frontispiece by Jean Francois Durand (1731-1778) and engraved by Etienne Fessard (1714-1777) showing Phaedrus showing his work to the god Mercury. The volume also contains additional vignettes and ornaments throughout the volume done by Fessard and Sornique
Jean Francois Durand (1731-1778). French artist.
Etienne Fessard (1714-1777). French engraver.
Dominique Sornique (1708-1756). French engraver.